This online activity will help you to: • Determine mentoring program modes and methodsYou must read the material and watch the videos provided to you to assimilate the knowledge and terminology required for this subject After reading and watching the video link provided, you will be required to answer few questions which will be checked by your trainer. Although it is not part of your assessment tool, answering these questions are mandatory as your answer will provide to the trainer that you have understood the subject. Watch and Listen to the video on The Mentoring Process–https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6lEXyuqb4NIREADING – Types of Mentoring Writers in the field of mentoring make an important distinction between different types of mentoring arrangements. Two of these are ‘informal’ and ‘formal’ mentoring. Another important distinction is to see mentoring as being carried out by one’s peers, as in peer mentoring, or more traditionally by a senior or more experienced colleague, as in traditional mentoring. An increasingly important type of mentoring that has emerged over the last 10 years is e-mentoring, which uses e-technology to enable mentors and mentees to communicate. Informal mentoringInformal mentoring occurs when two people engage in a mentoring relationship without any intervention or guidance from the organisation (Clutterbuck 2004b). Traditionally, mentors sought up-and-coming talented charges to develop, provided them with guidance and sponsorship, and ‘opened doors’ for them in their respective fields. This type of mentoring still takes place today. It is also not unusual for mentees or protégés to seek out a powerful mentor who will provide this type of sponsorship and guidance. Primarily, informal mentoring can be best understood when two people who work in a similar or related field find they have mutual interests and decide to work together. Thus an informal relationship occurs. The key defining feature of informal mentoring (as opposed to formal mentoring) goes back to Clutterbuck’s (2004b) point that informal mentoring occurs without any assistance or intervention from organisations. Advantages of informal mentoring:According to Clutterbuck (2004a) people who are informally mentored tend to be more satisfied than those who are in formal mentor relationships, informal mentors are ‘there’ because they want to be; informal mentoring is voluntary, longevity, greater commitment and motivation are features of this type of mentoring.Disadvantages of informal mentoring:A disadvantage of informal mentoring is that not everyone who wishes to be mentored is chosen by a mentor. Clutterbuck (2004a) uses the term, ‘social exclusion’ to explain the phenomenon of not being selected by an informal mentor.Rosabeth Kanter (1977) in her ethnographic study of men and women in one large corporation in America described a type of sponsorship mentoring, whereby male managers were those who sponsored, mentored or developed other males (and not females) in the organisation. Since the time of her research, other studies have shown that not only women, but also members of minority groups (e.g. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and those with disabilities) find it challenging to be part of informal mentoring arrangements.Formal mentoringFormal mentoring occurs where the organisation provides support structures to ensure that participants have clarity of purpose and the support they may need to make a success of the relationship’ (Clutterbuck 2004b). It is an interventionist strategy modelled on the processes and activities of informal mentoring, used by organisations as a means of providing staff with development and support. Unlike traditional or informal mentoring models that are centuries old, formal mentoring programs emerged in the 1970s. Since the first formal program was introduced in the United States, many countries worldwide have implemented particular types of mentoring programs, and today, formal mentoring programs are commonplace in hospitals, schools, public sector departments, corporations, universities, community organisations and the armed forces. These programs have been designed for many purposes such as induction (e.g. new teachers, graduate programs); leadership development (e.g. new school principals, senior executives) and affirmative action (e.g. helping target groups such as youth at risk, and members of minority groups). Common to formal programs is support, learning and growth, skill development, and improved confidence.Advantages of formal mentoring: Social inclusion purposes; such arrangements tend to be more focused and structured; and specific goals of the program are known to all parties. Disadvantages of formal mentoring include: Both parties take longer to develop a relationship; not always voluntary; and time pressures become more evident. Formal or informal?Clutterbuck (2004b) suggests that the line dividing formal from informal mentoring is not always clear. He refers to ‘grey areas’ including where people within a mentoring program have choice regarding with whom to work, where a trained mentor within a mentoring program lets the mentee know he/she is interested in mentoring him/her and where the mentee within a mentoring program informs HR if appropriate, and approaches the mentor he/she would like to work with. Mentoring does not need to be formalised through an organisation or funding agency to be effective. Mentoring has been around for a very long time, and many arts practitioners acknowledge that they have had informal mentors at different times during their career. The advantage in making the mentoring relationship more formal (either through gaining organisational support or by creating a specific agreement) is that the partnership becomes more focused, expectations are more clearly defined and the outcomes are generally more effective. Another advantage is that the process of applying for entry into a mentoring program helps you articulate your career goals and/or the focus of the project you are currently working on. The same can be said for applying for funding from an agency such as the Australia Council or your state or local arts body.It is sometimes difficult to distinguish a clear line between formal and informal relationships. For example, even when a mentee is formally inducted into an arts company, opportunities for informal mentoring still exist, and these can be very beneficial to the mentee’s development.Informal mentoringLess structured than formal and more fluidMore likely to meet the mentee’s individual needsLikely to be of a longer time duration than formal mentoringFormal mentoringThere is a timeframe so that limits are defined Goals are more overt and visibleMore strategic approach to human resource development since mentoring is part of the organisation’s…......
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